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When purchasing watches, no one is questioned with how to wear watches, actually. This appears to be logical and rational. Nevertheless, the simplest things happen to be complicated sometimes. Everything is made from details and details sometimes mean far more than the whole. People who really wander how to wear watches properly exist and they are really concerned in this issue.


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History of Plastic Surgery

Sunday, 08 November 2009

history of plastic surgeryIt often takes in place in history of the world that the trigger point for the advanced progress of any sphere of science is the developed problem of the society. Mostly it concerns the medicine. And this is obvious since the health of humans is of a high priority and significance throughout the history. The same refers to plastic surgery, very specific sphere of medicine. It is acknowledged by the scientists that preliminary plastic surgery was done in the very old times, several centuries B.C., in ancient India. The facts are officially evidenced by the numerous historical documents.

So, what was the origin of surgery in ancient times? It is known that severe customs and traditions of ancient Indian tribes caused the surgery. Thus, nose cutting off was very «popular» punishing action for those who dared to thieve, for people who wanted to blame the enemies or make the unfaithful wife ugly or may be the faithful spouse as well to avoid the seduction for some neighbors to have affairs while the husband was away.

And yet, the look of the noseless Indian native was not surprising for those times, and moreover, that was very typical for the tribes with such national traditions. The punishment was not considered as the problem unlike its consequences, and thus the problem arouse to restore the nose and the innovative, and revolutionary surgery was needed.  The very first attempts to rehabilitate the part of the face were the first stage of progress in the sphere of rhinoplasty, the surgery to rehabilitate the nose. In spite of the ancient time and wild customs, the mastership of the ancient Indian surgeons is of high appreciation and admiration, for the techniques they used two and a half thousand years ago are still used up to date and they did not outdate in the sphere of rhinoplasty. What they did is that they used the patch of the skin of the patient from the forehead to implant to the nose skin. The patch of the forehead skin was cut to have the patch on the «base» which was then turned at the angle of 180º and they formed quite a good nose from it. And only a minor scar on the bridge of the nose reminded of the surgery.

And the surgeons in the ancient Greece would practice the similar technique. Moreover, the Greek doctors improved the technique of plastic surgery on lips and auricle apart from rhinoplasty. In I century A.D. there were first attempts noticed in Rome to perform liposuction, and yet they found a document in China dated back to X century A.D. depicting the procedure of surgery on correction of the hare lip.

Gaspar Taliacocci, the Sicilian prominent doctor of XV century A.D. is considered the forebear of plastic surgery, though. He published the tractate the base of which was rhinoplasty with the help of cutaneous flaps in the area of biceps muscle of arm, and his tractate appeared to be very progressive technique of plastic surgery for that time. The Italian priesthood roundly condemned the achievements of the great surgeon putting them up as the interference into the God's actions and excommunicated Gaspar Taliacocci. Religious figures were angry to the extent that after the scientist dies, they caused to bury his body in the cemetery for criminals and other persona non grata.

The following several centuries turned to be the dull periods of time in view of improvement of plastic surgery. And yet, only in the early nineteenth century the medicine again turned back to practicing this surgical sphere, and again, the nose proved to be the subject of the increased concern. The rhinoplasty was first done in 1814 by one of the surgeons, D. Carpeu practicing in London, applying the same methods of ancient Indians. Further the English doctor performed several successful surgeries on rehabilitation of the hard palate in patients with hare lip and a lot many plastic procedures.

First painkillers appeared to be the high-power pulse to improve the plastic surgery. This period is known for the fact that plastic surgery gradually turned from rehabilitation procedures into the cosmetic ones aimed to improvement of the esthetic appearance of the person, while the former procedure was assigned to rehabilitate the missing part of the body. It is strange now for us that the first patients who experienced the surgery were men in majority. The surgery to remove excess of fat from the mammas (gynecomastia) was highly demanded. Perhaps the minor number of women who risked having the services of plastic surgery is explained with the fact that such women were sharply accused by the society.

World Wars I and II and post-war periods caused the procedure of plastic surgery improve. There were huge crowds of people injured and deformed during the wars who were ready for many actions to rehabilitate the natural appearance. And again, such surgery was available and affordable only to the wealthiest part of the world.

Today the demand for plastic surgery went to the heavens. Currently the plastic surgery is available not only to the skim of the society but to any average person with the average profit. The safety, high quality and a range of techniques available offer complete rehabilitation of any defect of the appearance giving confidence to the person and making them active in social life.

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